Waterlevels and currents often pose an engineering challenge. Predicting flow and waterlevels is essential for safety against flooding. For example maritime vessels may have to deal with strong tidal currents for manouvering. Design heights of structures rely on extreme water level analysis.
In offshore and coastal areas waves are often important. Offshore maritime operations rely heavily on calm wave conditions. Good forecasts of wave conditions are therefore essential for these operations. Statistical analysis of waves can help in finding the best location for new port operations.
Tides and waves can cause sediment transport. Coastal erosion is for example caused by sediment transport. Another example is silt dispersion due to dredging spill, which is more and more regulated for environmental reasons. Numerical models are a frequently used tool to investigate sediment transport.